• Acute Effects of Triiodothyronine on Endothelial Function in Human Subjects
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM is a specific target of thyroid hormone (TH), and when TH secretion is chronically altered, this is accompanied by profound changes in cardiovascular hemodynamics. In particular, hyperthyroidism induces a high-output state, with a marked fall in systemic vascular resistance (SVR), whereas hypothyroidism causes opposite changes. More recent studies demonstrate that vascular reactivity is exaggerated in patients with hyperthyroidism because of enhanced sensitivity of the endothelial component.

  • Adrenocortical Effects of Oral Estrogens and Soy Isoflavones in Female Monkeys
IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, adrenal androgens have an important role in maintaining sexual function , bone density, psychological well-being, muscle mass, and cognitive function. Aging is associated with a progressive and marked decline in these androgens , and the postmenopausal state is thus characterized by lower ovarian and adrenal sex hormones

  • Breast and Uterine Effects of Soy Isoflavones and Conjugated Equine Estrogens in Postmenopausal Female Monkeys
SOY ISOFLAVONES ARE phytoestrogenic compounds widely marketed and used as a natural alternative to traditional hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Dietary supplementation with soy isoflavones is particularly common in women at high risk for breast cancer despite controversial evidence on the role of isoflavones in cancer risk. Epidemiologic studies have shown lower rates of breast and endometrial cancer among women consuming higher amounts of soy 

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone, obesity and cardiovascular disease risk: a review of human studies
Humans and other primates are unique in having elevated circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated ester (DHEA-S). In fact, in humans, DHEA-S concentration is 100- to 500-fold higher than that of testosterone and 1000 to 10 000 times greater than that of estradiol. DHEA and DHEAS, however, do not possess intrinsic estrogenic or androgenic activity

  • Effects of Replacement Dose of Dehydroepiandrosterone in Men and Women of Advancing Age
AGING in man is associated with reduced protein synthesis, decreased lean body mass and bone mass, and increased body fat. These body composition changes are accompanied by a progressive decline of adrenal secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DS) paralleling that of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) system. Although the GH-IGF-I system is recognized as a trophic factor in promoting cellular growth and metabolism at multiple sites

  • Effects of Physiological Growth Hormone (GH) Therapy on Cognition and Quality of Life in Patients with Adult- Onset GH Deficiency
IN ADULTS, GH deficiency (GHD) is the most common endocrine deficiency associated with pituitary disease, affecting 90–100% of individuals with pituitary macroadenomas .GHDhas been associated with changes in body composition including a decrease in lean body mass, increase in percent body fat, and a decrease in bone mineral density . Recent investigations have demonstrated that GH replacement in adults with GHD results in improvements in bone density and lean muscle mass indicating a therapeutic benefit of GH on body composition

  • Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin
Recent studies point to the adipose tissue as a highly active endocrine organ secreting a range of hormones. Leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin are considered to take part in the regulation of energy metabolism

  • Endocrine Responses to Chronic Androstenedione Intake in 30- to 56-Year-Old Men
RECENTLY, THE INGESTION of prohormone nutritional supplements has been purported to increase serum testosterone concentrations. In two women, ingestion of a single 100-mg dose of androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione [androstenedione (ASD)] elevated serum testosterone concentrations approximately 600% within 60 min. However, in young men, ingestion of 100 or 200 mg of ASD does not change serum testosterone concentrations , but ingesting a single 300-mg dose of ASD promotes a smaller (34%)increase in serum total testosterone concentrations that persists for 4–6 h

  • Endogenous Sex Hormones and Cognitive Function in Older Men
BIOLOGICALLY plausible mechanisms derived from animal studies suggest that endogenous sex hormones affect cognition through an initial organizational role in the perinatal period , during adult life, and possibly extending to the prevention of dementia. Studies of men examining the relationship between endogenous estrogen and testosterone levels andcognition have yielded conflicting results

  • Endogenous sex hormones in men aged 40-80 years
Unlike women, men do not experience an abrupt reduction in endogenous sex hormone production. Still, age-associated decreases in the levels of (bioactive) androgens occur. The fact that men lack a major identifiable change in hormonal status, comparable with menopause, makes the characterization of male endocrine status particularly difficult

  • Circulating Estradiol Is an Independent Predictor of Progression of Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged Men
THE MALE PREPONDERANCE in cardiovascular disease has often been ascribed to the protective effects of endogenous estrogens in premenopausal women. Supportfor this assumption derives from numerous studies reporting beneficial effects of estrogens on serum lipids, vascular function, and experimental atherosclerosis in both males and females

  • Female Sex Hormones and Cardiovascular Disease in Women
CORONARY artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death among women in the United States, accounting for nearly 30% of deaths . The incidence of CAD and associated morbidity/mortality rises with age. Below age 55 yr, the incidence of CAD in women is one third that in men; however, at age 75 yr, the incidence is essentially the same in both genders. Indeed, over a quarter million women aged 50–75 yr die of CAD in the United States each year

  • Atypical depression in growth hormone deficient adults, and the beneficial effects of growth hormone treatment on depression and quality of life
It is well recognised that for some hypopituitary patients, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has an adverse effect on their quality of life (QOL). Symptoms such as reduced energy levels, sleep disturbance, depressed mood, anxiety, and social isolation have been shown to improve with growth hormone (GH) treatment in most, but not all, studies

  • Combination Therapy With Hormone Replacement and Alendronate for Prevention of Bone Loss in Elderly Women
THE IMPACT OF OSTEOPOROSIS IS most pronounced in elderly women who have the greatest risk of fracture. Available antiresorptive agents increase bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although the relationship between BMD and fracture reduction is not linear, meta-analyses of multiple clinical trials of antiresorptive therapies reveal that an increase in BMD correlates well with the reduction in the rate of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures

  • Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, Total Testosterone, and Symptomatic Androgen Deficiency Are Associated with Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Non obese Men
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with prevalence rates of 6.9% and 6.7%, respectively, and with CAD causing one of every five deaths. Unfortunately, by the time these chronic diseases present clinically, irreversible vascular damage has already occurred

  • Association of endogenous testosterone with blood pressure and left ventricular mass in men. The Tromsø Study
Both systolic and diastolic hypertension are established risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). In men, blood pressure increases with age while testosterone, especially free testosterone decreases. Lower endogenous testosterone levels were reported with increasing systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in one case-control study, and low levels of testosterone have also been described in hypertensive men

  • Low-Level Laser Therapy as a Non-Invasive Approach for Body Contouring : A Randomized, Controlled Study
The emergence of non-invasive modalities targeting subcutaneous fat to achieve a slimming effect continues to gain interest amongst physicians and patients. Numerous delivery mechanisms have been developed to achieve adipocyte destruction including, ultrasound, infrared, and radio frequency. The external application of photonic energy at high intensities can generate significant adverse events if not properly utilized; therefore, all parameters must be properly explored in order to identity which delivery mechanism yields the most desirable results while minimizing adverse events


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